A Curated Collection of Earth Science Videos (2023)

Learn about what counts as a mineral, and what crystalline structure is.

A Curated Collection of Earth Science Videos (1)

A video by ParrMr. The resources accompanying this video were created by Journee Wittenberg and are shared with a CC BY-NC-SA license.


The video I chose is a fun, catchy song about minerals. More specifically it is about minerals as inorganic solids, how minerals are formed, different types of minerals, how to categorize/test them and more. It briefly touches on elements of categorizing minerals (such as the Mohs scale, streak, colour) in the bridge, but the chorus and verses focus on the things that make minerals minerals, such as the fact that they are inorganic, their composition, how they come to be made, etc.

Why Watch This Video

  • Have you ever wondered what makes one mineral different from another?
  • Would you like to understand the definition of a mineral and their physical characteristics?
  • Have you ever been confused about the ways to test the difference between certain minerals?

Key Terms

​The video I chose is a song written for American sixth graders, so this video uses words that people likely have heard and/or know about. A few terms used that I thought the majority of non-science class takers might not know about fully are “naturally occurring,” “inorganic solid” and “silicates/carbonates.”

The phrase naturally occurring when applied to objects such as minerals means they were not created by humans or not man-made. So in the case of minerals, every inorganic mineral was created from earthly processes such as magma (molten rock found inside Earth’s crust) cooling, or evaporation, rather than in a lab by scientists.

Inorganic solid (or compound) refers to any solid chemical compound that does not consist of hydrogen bonded to carbon. Any compound that consists of hydrogen-carbon bonds would be considered as organic.

Silicates and carbonates are examples of inorganic chemical compounds. Silicates are rock-forming minerals, including common minerals such as quartz, olivine, and mica, where silicon and oxygen atoms bond. Carbonate minerals are minerals made of carbonate ions (ions with carbon and oxygen). An example of a carbonate is calcium carbonate, the main “ingredient” of limestone.

Loose Ends

What is the Mohs hardness scale?

The first loose end I chose to resolve is the mention of the Mohs scale in one of the verses. It is only briefly brought up as a way to differentiate minerals, along with colour, lustre and streak testing. The Mohs scale of hardness was made by Freidrich Mohs as a way to test minerals on their general hardness by means of scratching with different material (these include fingernails, copper pennies, steel nails, etc.) Each of these materials are given a defined hardness and according to the scale, and whichever material scratches the surface of the mineral is harder than that mineral (if a mineral can be scratched by a copper penny which is a 3.5 on the scale, that mineral is lower than a 3.5).

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“Found in the crust, but naturally”

The second loose end I chose was the line, “found in the crust, but naturally.” I chose this because it closely relates to one of the key terms I chose. When he says this, he is referring to the fact that all minerals are created naturally (not man-made) and can be found in the Earth’s crust in rocks and ores (natural rock in which minerals—generally metals—can be found).

How does cooling rate relate to crystal size?

The final loose end I chose was the line, “if cooling happens fast, small crystals they are had, if cooling really slow, larger ones they have.” This has to do with speed of magma cooling and temperature of magma, therefore the creation of crystallization of minerals within rocks. If the cooling down process is very slow, minerals have lots of time to grow and large crystals form. But, if cooling happens faster, there is not much time for growth, and small crystals form as a result. For example, granite typically cools slowly and therefore holds larger crystals than rhyolite, which cools quicker and usually contains crystals too small for the human eye to see.


Try these questions to test your understanding.


The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica. (2018, August 17). Silicate mineral. Retrieved October 12, 2020.

The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica. (2019, August 15). Carbonate. Retrieved October 12, 2020.

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A Curated Collection of Earth Science Videos (2)

A video by Graham Baird for TED-Ed. The resources accompanying this video were created by SAM Manzano and are shared with a CC BY-NC-SA license.

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A way mineral crystals can be created is through a process called precipitation, where hot groundwater is pushed to the surface and cooled to form crystals under the right conditions. All crystals have a defining atomic arrangement that form repeating structural patterns, which then develop into the crystal’s signature geometric shape. A crystal’s geometric shape can vary depending on environmental conditions where they grow, such as pressure, temperature, and chemical environment.

Why Watch This Video?

  • Have you ever wondered why some crystals repeatedly form specific geometric shapes?
  • Would you like to know how different kinds of atoms form different crystalline structures?
  • Would you like to know how the environment a crystal grows in influences the shape of a crystal?

Key Terms

Mineral. A solid that is created naturally by nature and is neither living nor made of living elements.

Crystalline structure. When the atoms in an object are arranged in an organized, repeating, 3-dimensional pattern.

Atomic arrangement. The way atoms are organized in an object. An item with a crystalline structure can have 1 of 6 different atomic arrangements.

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Loose Ends

How are mineral crystals formed, and how is precipitation involved in this?

[0:28] “Heat from igneous rocks drives groundwater to the surface. As the groundwater cools, ions precipitate out as mineral crystals.”

Precipitation, for reference, is one of many possible processes that form minerals: It refers to solids being formed from gases or liquid solutions due to a chemical reaction (Panchuk, 2019, p. 100). In this video, mineral crystals were formed from cooling water, which makes this particular process precipitation from a solution.

During a chemical reaction, a soluble compound is made with a solution that it is dissolved in. This compound is called the precipitate, and when the solution evaporates the precipitate is what is left (Lewis, A. et al., 2019, p. 1301). Ionic compounds are the precipitates in this situation, so due to their chemical composition they formed crystals as the groundwater cooled.

What’s a caldera? How is it relevant to crystals?

[0:11] “Deep beneath the hot springs in Yellowstone caldera […] A magma chamber by a hot spot in the earth’s mantle…”

Calderas form when a volcano collapses in on itself, forming something like a large crater. They are usually kilometers long in width and can fill up with rainfall over time. Depending on whether or not the magma chamber is still active, magma can force its way up from the ground and come into contact with the water stored in the caldera. This can result in precipitation and depicts the situation here. (Panchuk, 2019, p. 216.)

“Given the appropriate conditions…” [1:33] What are the appropriate conditions that allow a crystal to grow?

  1. The elements needed to make the mineral crystal are plenty and present in that area.
  2. There’s enough time for the atoms to arrange into a geometric structure.
  3. Proper physical and chemical conditions in nature. Different kinds of crystals can form in many different ways, like through gaseous and aqueous precipitation, weathering, or under high pressures. Therefore, there’s no one condition to cover all of them; they each require different kinds of physical and chemical conditions in order to form. However, a mineral has to be naturally occurring, so they all have the similarity of being made in nature. (Panchuk, 2019, p. 100)


Try these questions to test your understanding.


Lewis, A. et al., (2019). Precipitation. Knovel.

Panchuk, K. (2019). Physical Geology: First University of Saskatchewan Edition. University of Saskatchewan.

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Additional Reading

Mahan, G.D. (2020, April 2). Crystal. Encyclopædia Britannica.

McGreyne et al. (2020, February 4). Atom. Encyclopædia Britannica.

A Curated Collection of Earth Science Videos (3)


What are the 4 main Earth Science? ›

The four basic areas of Earth Science study are: geology, meteorology, oceanography and astronomy. Geology is the primary Earth science.

What is Earth Science in grade 11? ›

Description. Earth Science 11 is an introductory course that explores the Earth's composition, structure, processes, and history; its atmosphere, fresh water, and oceans; and its environment in space.

What is Earth Science called? ›

Geology : is the scientific study of the earth- the material of which it is made, the processes that act on these materials, the products formed, and the history of the planet and its life forms since origin. Geology now includes the study of other planets as well.

What are the 3 topics of Earth Science? ›

In general use, the term "earth science" often includes the study of the earth's atmosphere (meteorology or atmospheric science), the water flowing on and beneath the surface of continents (hydrology), and the earth's seas and oceans (oceanography or ocean sciences).

Is Earth science easy? ›

Geology is widely regarded as one of the easiest science classes you could take in college. There's even a funny saying for it: “rocks for jocks”.

How old is the Earth? ›

Earth is estimated to be 4.54 billion years old, plus or minus about 50 million years. Scientists have scoured the Earth searching for the oldest rocks to radiometrically date. In northwestern Canada, they discovered rocks about 4.03 billion years old.

What is Earth very short answer? ›

Earth, our home planet, is a world unlike any other. The third planet from the sun, Earth is the only place in the known universe confirmed to host life. With a radius of 3,959 miles, Earth is the fifth largest planet in our solar system, and it's the only one known for sure to have liquid water on its surface.

What is Earth in simple words? ›

Earth or the Earth is the planet on which we live. People usually say Earth when they are referring to the planet as part of the universe, and the Earth when they are talking about the planet as the place where we live.

What is Earth short? ›

There is no acronym for “earth”. The word earth can be used as a verb or a noun. ( See explanation below) An acronym is a word formed from the initial letter or letters of each of the successive parts or major parts of a compound term and is usually pronounced as a single word.

Is Earth Science hard? ›

Earth Science is a challenging scientific field, but it is also an exciting field, and most classes include field trips and hands-on experiences. Careers in Earth Science include jobs in industry, ranging from petroleum engineers working for giant oil companies to engineering geologists who are their own bosses.

Why do we study Earth? ›

We rely on Earth for resources such as soil, water, metals, industrial minerals, and energy, and we need to know how to find these resources and exploit them sustainably. We can recognize how human activities have altered the environment, and learn how to prevent and sometimes repair the damage.

What can Earth be called? ›

Whether you call our planet the Earth, the world or a terrestrial body, all of these names have an origin story deep in history.

What are the types of Earth? ›

Our home planet Earth is a rocky, terrestrial planet. It has a solid and active surface with mountains, valleys, canyons, plains and so much more.

What are the 5 main categories of Earth science? ›

The main branches are geology, meteorology, climatology, oceanography, and environmental science. Astronomy uses principles understood from Earth to learn about the solar system, galaxy, and universe.

Which science is hard? ›

Examples include mathematics, biology, physics, chemistry and geology.

Is physics harder than earth science? ›

Earth/Physical Science

These classes are less math-intensive and often considered less rigorous than physics.

What science is easiest? ›

Psychology is commonly thought of as the easiest of the science majors thanks to its relative lack of complex math, although psych majors can still expect to do a fair amount of statistical analysis on their way to a degree.

Who was the first person on Earth? ›

Adam is the name given in Genesis 1-5 to the first human.

How was the Earth born? ›

Formation. When the solar system settled into its current layout about 4.5 billion years ago, Earth formed when gravity pulled swirling gas and dust in to become the third planet from the Sun. Like its fellow terrestrial planets, Earth has a central core, a rocky mantle, and a solid crust.

Is the Earth alive? ›

No, planet Earth is not a living entity like a human being, a badger, a mosquito, or even a tomato plant. That fact, however, hasn't stopped people from treating Earth like a living creature throughout time.

Why is it called Earth? ›

All of the planets, except for Earth, were named after Greek and Roman gods and godesses. The name Earth is an English/German name which simply means the ground. It comes from the Old English words 'eor(th)e' and 'ertha'.

Why is Earth called a planet? ›

The Earth is called a living planet because it is where all living things such as plants, animals, and human beings call home. The Earth's ideal proximity to the sun makes it an ideal place for the growth of living organisms.

When did the Earth start? ›

Scientists now think the Earth's story began around 4.6 billion years ago in a disk-shaped cloud of dust and gas rotating around the early sun, made up of material left behind after the sun's formation.

Who Kept name Earth? ›

Unlike the other planets in the Solar System, in English, Earth does not directly share a name with an ancient Roman deity. The name Earth derives from the eighth century Anglo-Saxon word erda, which means ground or soil, and ultimately descends from Proto-Indo European *erþō.

How old is the Sun? ›

Who discovered Earth? ›

Earth was never formally 'discovered' because it was never an unrecognized entity by humans. However, its shared identity with other bodies as a "planet" is a historically recent discovery. The Earth's position in the Solar System was correctly described in the heliocentric model proposed by Aristarchus of Samos.

Who named Sun? ›

For as long as there have been lights in the night sky, humans have been coming up with names for them. Sumerian astronomers named the sun, moon and five visible planets (Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter and Saturn) after their great gods.

How do Earth look like? ›

As seen from outer space, the Earth looks like a bright blue ball. The blue is water, which covers most of the surface of the Earth. Clouds and bodies of ice, such as Antarctica, appear white, while land forms look brownish.

Which science is best? ›

10 Best Bachelor of Science Degrees
  • Computer Science. Computer science degrees focus on things like programming and web development. ...
  • Finance. ...
  • Information Technology. ...
  • Biology. ...
  • Mechanical Engineering. ...
  • Electrical Engineering. ...
  • Chemistry. ...
  • Mathematics.

Is Earth science easier than chemistry? ›

Students also feel that Earth science is important in understanding major scientific problems. Students agree with teachers about the rigor of Earth science, finding ESS to be a fairly easy subject compared to physics, chemistry, and biology.

What is the hardest thing to study in science? ›

The Hardest Science Degrees
  1. Chemistry. Chemistry degree is famous for being one of the hardest subjects. ...
  2. Astronomy. ...
  3. Physics. ...
  4. Biomedical Science. ...
  5. Neuroscience. ...
  6. Molecular Cell Biology. ...
  7. Mathematics. ...
  8. Nursing.

Why is Earth so special for life? ›

A special planet: the habitable Earth

It is the right distance from the Sun, it is protected from harmful solar radiation by its magnetic field, it is kept warm by an insulating atmosphere, and it has the right chemical ingredients for life, including water and carbon.

What is the importance of earth and life science in our daily life? ›

People who understand how Earth systems work can make informed decisions about where to buy or build a home out of harm's way. They can debate and resolve issues surrounding clean water, urban planning and development, national security, global climate change, and the use and management of natural resources.

Why should we protect the Earth essay? ›

Earth and the resources of earth make life possible on it. If we were to imagine our lives without these resources, that would not be possible. As life cannot function without sunshine, air, vegetation, and water. However, this is soon going to be our reality if we do not save the earth now.

Is Earth a goddess? ›

Gaia is the goddess of earth from Greek mythology. She is the great mother of all creation and the source of all the other gods, titans and mortal men.

Who named the moon? ›

Earth's moon, the longest known of all, was given the name "Selene" by the Greeks and "Luna" by the Romans, each a goddess.

How many humans are in the world? ›

8 Billion (2022)

What are the 4 main branches of Earth science and define each branches? ›

Many different sciences are used to learn about the Earth; however, geology, meteorology, oceanography, and astronomy are the four basic fields of Earth science research.

What are the two main types of science? ›

Formal sciences: the study of formal systems, such as those under the branches of logic and mathematics, which use an a priori, as opposed to empirical, methodology. Natural sciences: the study of natural phenomena (including cosmological, geological, physical, chemical, and biological factors of the universe).

What is a rock Class 7? ›

Answer: Any natural mass of mineral matter that makes up the earth's crust is called a rock. The earth's crust is made up of various types of rocks of different textures, sizes and colours.

What are the 6 Earth systems? ›

The five systems of Earth (geosphere, biosphere, cryosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere) interact to produce the environments we are familiar with.

What is the meaning of Earth and life science? ›

Earth science is a broad spectrum of science that covers life science and physical science. Life science is all about the study of living organisms and their relationships including biology, anatomy, ecology, etc. It is the study of the earth and its neighbouring celestial bodies of the solar system.

What are tools in Earth science? ›

Here's a list of the most common tools among geologists:
  • Rock Hammer.
  • Hand Lens.
  • Field Notebooks.
  • Clipboard.
  • Pencil Magnet.
  • 1oz Acid Bottle and holder(typically filled with HCl)
  • Retractable knife (or Mohs Hardness Testing Kit)
  • Pocket Scriber.

What are the 5 studies of Earth science? ›

Branches of Earth Science
  • Geology. Geology is an earth science that studies the earth's materials, processes, and structures. ...
  • Meteorology. Meteorology is the study of atmospheric sciences. ...
  • Oceanography. ...
  • Astronomy.
27 Aug 2022

How are the 4 branches of Earth science connected? ›

Explanation: The four branches of Earth science, namely: Geology, Meteorology, Oceanography, Astronomy are all related because these are just specialized and expanded.

What are the different components of the Earth system? ›

The five systems of Earth (geosphere, biosphere, cryosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere) interact to produce the environments we are familiar with.

What is the purpose of Earth science? ›

The broad aim of the Earth sciences is to understand the present features and past evolution of Earth and to use this knowledge, where appropriate, for the benefit of humankind.

What are the 2 types of Earth? ›

Earth's crust is divided into two types: oceanic crust and continental crust.

How many types of Earths are there? ›

This is the outside layer of the earth and is made of solid rock, mostly basalt and granite. There are two types of crust; oceanic and continental.
The core.
Related topic/s
Related programme/s
Related publicationsUnderstanding Earth Processes, Rocks and the Geological History of Ireland
3 more rows

Is Earth science hard? ›

Earth Science is a challenging scientific field, but it is also an exciting field, and most classes include field trips and hands-on experiences. Careers in Earth Science include jobs in industry, ranging from petroleum engineers working for giant oil companies to engineering geologists who are their own bosses.

What is Earth science 4th grade? ›

Note: Grade 4 ES focuses on changes to Earth's surface due to erosion, deposition of soil, rock sediment, flooding, volcanoes, and earthquakes that can be taught along with this content.

What is taught in Earth science? ›

An Earth science curriculum focuses on the study of the planet, and its place and relation to the rest of the universe. An Earth science course teaches students a number of fundamental concepts in geology, oceanography, meteorology, and astronomy.

How does the 4 Earth systems affect work with one another? ›

The geosphere has four subsystems called the lithosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, and atmosphere. Because these subsystems interact with each other and the biosphere, they work together to influence the climate, trigger geological processes, and affect life all over the Earth.

What are the 3 roots of science? ›

The three main roots of science are biology, chemistry and physics. Biology includes all the living organisms such as animals and plants, even humans, and investigates their bilogical function, origin, evolution or genetical structure.

How can we study the Earth? ›

Typically, Earth scientists use tools from geology, chronology, physics, chemistry, geography, biology, and mathematics to build a quantitative understanding of how Earth works and evolves. For example, meteorologists study the weather and watch for dangerous storms. Hydrologists examine water and warn of floods.


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